Issue> <Stem Cells>
Topic: C) STEM CELLS
shows cord blood comparable to matched bone marrow
researchers report that umbilical cord blood transplants may offer
blood cancer patients better outcomes than bone marrow transplants.
is the first study that directly compares matched bone marrow, which
is currently considered the preferred graft, with matched and mismatched
umbilical cord blood.
investigators compared outcomes of pediatric leukemia patients who
received unrelated bone marrow transplants with those who received
umbilical cord transplants. While all bone marrow donors were matched,
nearly all cord blood donors were mismatched. Remarkably, mismatched
cord blood performed as well as matched bone marrow as measured
by leukemia-free survival rates, providing the degree of mismatch
was limited and the number of cord blood cells available was sufficient.
Furthermore, study participants who received matched cord blood
had a 20 percent higher survival rate than matched bone marrow recipients,
though the number of matched cord blood transplants was small.
the study showed that umbilical cord blood took longer to rebuild
the blood-making cells in the body, it was associated with a lower
risk of graft versus host disease.
of leukemia relapse also are lower with mismatched umbilical cord
research suggests that it will become more important to invest in
cord blood banks that meet certain standards in relation to cell
dose and human leukocyte antigen diversity.
information can be found at: www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/73590.php
Embryonic Stem-Cell-Based Therapy Trial in Spinal
-Cord Injury Gets FDA Approval
23, 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration gave approval for
a phase 1 trial of a cell therapy (GRNOPC1) derived from human embryonic
stem cells in patients with acute spinal-cord injury. The types
of cells to be used in the trial are neural stem cells called oligodendrocyte
main objective of the trial is to examine the safety of (GRNOPC1),
but for one year after treatment the company will also look for
any recovery of function and movement in the lower body lost through
the injury. In all, the patients will be monitored for 15 years.
research with these cells, the mobility of rats with hind leg paralysis
was improved and post-mortems showed that the injected cells had
multiplied in the injury site and restored lost connections. Also,
infusion of these cells was not associated with teratoma formation
up to 12 months after injection.
safety in patients has been established, the company plans to seek
FDA approval both to increase the dose and to expand the study to
include patients with cervical spinal injuries.
more details about this trial, please go to: www.medscape.com/viewarticle/587411
you can visit: www.newscientist.com/article/dn16475-historic-trial-to-treat-spinal-injury-with-stem-cells.html
scientists deliver on promise of stem cell therapy for lung disease
Quebecers suffering from pulmonary hypertension were treated in
with their own gene-modified stem cells. The therapy is unique in
the world as it is the only clinical study employing patient stem
cells genetically modified for clinical use in lung disease. A team
of scientists led by Dr. Jacques Galipeau, Hematologist and stem
cell researcher at the Jewish General Hospital, a McGill University
Teaching Hospital, genetically engineered the stem cells with synthetic
DNA to produce nitric oxide, a critical molecule involved in the
repair and protection of blood vessels. These cells were given in
a heart catheterization suite, and lodged in the lung where it is
hoped they will stimulate the repair and regeneration of blood vessels
in the lung.
procedure has cured laboratory rats with pulmonary hypertension,
and this study in Canadian volunteers afflicted with pulmonary hypertension
seeks to assess the safety of this type of stem cell treatment.
to read about this topic is available at: www.newswire.ca/en
Natural Killer Cells in Cord Blood to fight Leukemia
from The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center have found
a novel process to increase the number of natural killer (NK) cells
in cord blood more than 30-fold, generating more than 150 million
NK cells from one cord blood unit while maintaining their activation
to find and kill acute leukemia cells.
given to mice with aggressive human leukemia, these NK cells reduced
the circulating human acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute
myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells by 60 to 85 percent.
NK cells have decreased potential to cause graft-versus-host disease;
they target and kill cancer cells while leaving normal cells alone.
“These results support the evaluation of cord blood-derived NK cells
as a potential immuno-therapeutic approach in acute leukemias.”
says Zweidler-McKay, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of pediatrics
from the Children’s Cancer
detailed information about this topic, you can visit: www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/107898.php
Cell-Based Therapy may be able to treat Muscular Dystrophy
at the University of Texas Southwestern used genetic manipulation
techniques to stimulate the production of a key chemical (Pax3)
inside the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that triggers their transformation
into muscle cells, followed by cell sorting to purify the muscle-forming
cells. This led to the formation of a muscle progenitor cell population
in sufficient amounts to be then delivered through the circulation,
targeting many more muscle locations than by intramuscular injection.
This resulted in improved muscle function into a mouse model of
Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. The technique didn’t result in tumor
formation owing to the partial differentiation of the isolated muscle
progenitor cells, which has previously hampered the therapeutic
use of ESCs.
the genetic manipulation of the ESCs disallows this technique to
be used in the clinic at this point, future studies may point to
ways of inducing Pax3 expression in ESCs without the need of genetically
modifying the cells.
can read more about this subject by visiting: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080224141733.htm
Cord blood may help build new heart valves
presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions
2008, showed that doctors at the University Hospital of Munich are
growing new heart valves from adult stem cells derived from umbilical
cord blood which are designated ultimately for the replacement of
such defective heart valves in the earliest stages of a newborn’s
life. The cells were seeded onto eight heart valve scaffolds constructed
of a biodegradable material and then grown in a laboratory. Microscopic
and biochemical examination showed that the cells had not only differentiated
into cardiac tissue, survived and grown, but had produced the extracellular
matrix necessary to tissue function and structure.
of the valves was tested for functional efficacy according to variations
in blood flow volume and pressure, and all of which were found to
mimic naturally occurring healthy valves. The next step will be
done this year, involving implantation of the bioengineered valves
into young lambs to test how the valves change in growth and function
over several years.
details about this topic could be found at: www.cellmedicine.com/cord-blood-heart-valves.asp
cell generation from ordinary cells now safe
researchers at Kyoto University invented a new way to transform
ordinary cells into embryonic-like stem cells called iPS cells (induced
pluripotent stem cells) using a ring of genetic material called
ordinary cells into iPS, scientists use retroviruses to integrate
their own genetic material into the cells they infect. This can
be dangerous and can cause tumors. After trying several methods,
the Japanese team looped three of the genes needed into one plasmid
and the fourth into another, and transplanted these into cells from
a mouse embryo. The mouse embryonic cells reverted to a stem-like
state and began behaving like embryonic cells. Scientists said that
this method was not efficient as using retroviruses but they plan
to try their method using human cells.
more about this topic, please go to: www.reuters.com
turn human skin cells into insulin-producing cells
at the University of North Carolina
at Chapel School of Medicine have transformed cells from human skin
into insulin-producing cells which hold great therapeutic potential
approach involves reprogramming skin cells into pluripotent stem
cells and then inducing them to differentiate into cells that produce
John Buse, M.D., Ph.D., president of the American Diabetes Association
said that many years of additional studies are required first, but
this study provides hope for a cure for all patients with diabetes.
get more information about this subject, please go to: www.stemcellnetwork.ca/news_020CT08_6.php
marrow stem cells used to regenerate skin
new study published in Artificial Organs journal suggests that adult
bone marrow stem cells can be used in the construction of artificial
skin using engineering technology and biomedical theory methods.
the practicability of repairing burn wounds with tissue-engineered
skin, the study established a burn wound model in the skin of pigs,
once the artificial skin was attached and the dermal layer had begun
to regenerate, stem cells were differentiated into skin cells. The
cells are self-renewing and raise the quality of healing in wound
healing therapy; when grafted, they showed better healing, less
wound contraction and better development of blood vessels.
lead author of the study Dr.Yan Jin of the Fourth Military
said that they hope that engineered structural tissue will someday
replace plastic and metal prostheses currently used to replace damaged
joints and bones by suitable materials and stem cells.
more about this subject, you can visit: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090114160548.htm
of stem cells in renewing the cornea
of researchers in Lausanne, Switzerland
has published a study in the Journal Nature showing how the cornea
uses stem cells to repair itself.
a mouse models they demonstrate that everyday wear and tear on the
cornea is repaired from stem cells residing in the corneal epithelium,
and that more serious repair jobs require the involvement of other
stem cells that migrate from the limbus (the region between the
cornea and the conjunctiva).
researchers demonstrated that the epithelium of the cornea contains
stem cells which have the capacity to generate two different epithelial
tissues: corneal and conjunctival and a re activated in everyday
options for partial or complete blindness due to corneal lesions
involve corneal transplants and more recently stem cell therapy
where stem cells ’source is the limbus.
research indicates that the cornea itself can also be explored as
a potential source of stem cells.
more information about this topic, please go to: www.stemcellnetwork.ca/news_02OCT08_1.php
cell “living bandage” heals knee injuries
have grown a “living bandage” from a patient’s own stem cells to
heal a common sporting knee injury (tears to the meniscal cartilage
which acts as a shock absorbing cushion between the bones of the
upper and lower leg).
scientists used the stem cells to coat a sponge-like scaffold made
from collagen and placed it inside the tear in the cartilage; the
stem cells pulled the two pieces of torn cartilage together.
Anthony Hollander, professor of rheumatology and tissue engineering
said that they hope that in the patient they can reunite the cartilage
in a strong enough way to heal the wound completely.
more about this subject you can visit: www.timeonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/health/article5163088.ece
rules force stem-cell research to seek alternatives
25th, 2008, the European Patent Office (EPO) has finally
refused to grant a patent for stem cells that necessarily involved
the destruction of a human embryo.
European Patent Convention (EPC) is the overriding source of patent
law for each of the 31 European states, including the UK. The
EPC does not allow patenting inventions whose commercial exploitation
would be contrary to public order or morality. Furthermore, the
Convention prohibits patenting on uses of human embryos for industrial
or commercial purposes.
“Stem Cell Seminar recommendations” regarding this issue are as
cells themselves as well as all their types can not be patented.
This is identical to the way that none of the phases of human growth
can be patented – including the fetal stages. In the same manner,
fetuses cannot be patented if they are to be used for industrial
or commercial purposes; for they are creations of Allah.
of separating stem cells can be patented. Also, the methods of producing
specific therapeutic stem cell lines can be patented.
seminar highly recommends making these techniques and products accessible
to developing countries at affordable prices.
visit our website at www.islamset.org to get more information
denounces embryo research
major new document on bioethics, the Vatican updated its opposition to
embryonic stem-cell research, but it said adult stem cell research
was allowed as the subject was unharmed by the process.
November 2007, IOMS held an international seminar “Dilemma of stem
cells: Research, Future and Ethical Challenges” in Cairo, Egypt,
in cooperation with the WHO regional office in Cairo; UNESCO; ISESCO;
and the Islamic Fiqh Academy in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
on IOMS recommendations regarding Stem Cell Research:
is no Islamic legal objection to conducting research on stem cells
to produce body tissues with view to using them in the treatment
of some diseases on condition that these cells are obtained from
sources permitted by Islamic law.
is no Islamic legal objection to obtaining stem cells from adult
donors on the condition of obtaining their informed consent together
with the protection of their identity against DNA analysis.
is lawful to take adult stem cells from an adult person to plant
them in the tissue of the same person’s organs to produce sperms
in cases of aspermatism or oligospermia; this also applies to adult
eggs surplus to the requirements of IVF don’t enjoy sanctity before
implantation, hence using them for the purposes of treatment and
scientific research is better than wasting them.
is prohibited to affect an intentional abortion; it should be confined
to natural unintentional abortion and abortion for Islamic legally
permitted reasons as saving the mother’s life.
is no Islamic legal objection to benefiting from the blood of the
placenta or the umbilical cord. It is imperative to obtain the couple’s
consent to using it after clarifying the aspects of its use along
with a guarantee that donors are protected against DNA identification.
is not allowed to use primordial tissues of aborted fetuses for
sperm production or use their ovaries for producing eggs. This is
with the exception of using these eggs and sperms in research to
unveil the reasons of female and male infertility or any other relevant
cells are only to be used in medical fields, they are not to be
used for the purposes of plastic surgery which is contrary to divine
law and which alters Allah’s creation and tampers with it.
visit our website at www.islamset.org for more detailed information
regarding this issue.
International Tissue Engineering Research Association (ITERA) recommends
Public-Shared banking of umbilical cord blood stem cells
of the leading scientists and clinicians from the field of stem
cell research and stem cell therapy united in the course of the
fourth ITERA workshop on October 14, 2008 and agreed on a consensus
which includes storage and applications of umbilical cod derived
eight experts consented that the isolation of umbilical cord stem
cells is harmless, easy and without risk for the mother or the child.
They can be stored for many years and are immediately available
when needed, possibly also for therapies that ate still to be developed.
Umbilical cord stem cells can potentially be used on the child itself
or on a related family member or unrelated patients.
Colin McGuckin, Professor of Regenerative Medicine at Newcastle University and member of the consensus
board said that umbilical cord blood can be of use not only for
potential transplants, but also for the development of defined tissues
for making drugs and for toxicity testing, which is increasingly
important for the creation of humanized drugs.
can be provided by so called private/family banks or, in some countries,
by public banks. A more modern approach, so called public-shared
banking, might offer a good solution to fulfill the needs of individuals
as well as the general public, so the expert panel agreed.
consensus will serve as guidance for clinicians and the public to
support well-informed decision-making.
can visit www.itera-ls.org
for more information.
stem cell seminar recommended that there is no Islamic legal objection
to benefiting from the blood of the placenta or the umbilical cord
and it is imperative to obtain the couple’s consent
to using it after clarifying the aspects of its use with a guarantee
that donors are protected against DNA identification.
windpipe transplant using stem cells
have carried out the world’s first tissue-engineered whole organ
transplant using a windpipe made with the patient’s own stem cells.
doctors took a donor windpipe from a donor who recently died and
used strong chemicals and enzymes to wash away all the donor cells
leaving only a tissue scaffold made of fibrous tissue collagen.
They repopulated the windpipe with stem cells taken from the patient’s
patient is leading now an active normal life with no signs of her
immune system rejecting the transplanted organ even though she received
no immunosuppressive drugs.
are already looking to the future as they believe the same approach
will be used in years to come to create engineered replacements
for other damaged organs.
can read more details about the technique involved in this procedure
if you visit http://news.scotsman.com
of stem cell treatments exist, although most are still experimental
and/or costly, with the notable exception of bone marrow transplantation.
Medical researchers anticipate one day being able to use technologies
derived from adult and embryonic stem cell research to treat cancer,
Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease,
cardiac failure, muscle damage and neurological disorders.
more information about current and potential stem cell treatments
you can visit:
The trachea graft ready for transplantation
stem-cell clinics “exploiting” Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s
of 19 companies that promote stem cell therapy for debilitating
diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s, has found that
most make inflated and overoptimistic claims about benefits that
are not backed by evidence, while making little or no mention of
the risks. The findings,
from a team at the University of Alberta,
have prompted the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR),
to advise patients and their families to approach stem-cell therapy
with extreme caution.
cell therapies are tightly controlled in North America, Britain
and most of Europe, and only a few are approved for clinical use, mainly
for leukaemia, blood disorders and burns. Companies based in countries
such as China, Mexico and Russia, often promote them as treatments
for MS, stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.
ISSCR issued guidelines explaining to the public that many years
of pre-clinical and clinical research will be needed to bring novel
stem-cell-based therapies to fruition.
urged the countries that lack regulatory system for stem-cell medicine
to develop one, and offered its assistance with setting standards.
It is also launching handbook for patients to help them to assess
more about this topic, please go to: www.stemcellnetwork.ca/news_03DEC08_1.php
firm allowed using aborted stem cells in stroke test
for the first time in England will use stem cells derived
from the brain and spinal cord to treat a major neurological disorder.
The therapy comes from a stem-cell line grown from a tissue sample
taken at least five years ago from the brain of an aborted fetus.
The health and function of 12 patients who receive the experimental
treatment will be tracked for six months to two years after being
disabled by a stroke.
British permission follows three failed attempts to get U.S. Food
and Drug Administration clearance to begin the trial. The company
was ordered by North American regulators in September last year
to halt human tests of their stroke therapy, which uses stroke patients’
own stem cells to stimulate growth of new brain cells, because of
more about the topic at: www.newsday.com Health news on January 20, 2009
to use patient’s own stem cells to treat heart failure
with dilated cardiomyopathy will undergo a one-year Cardiac Repair
Cell Treatment study at University of Utah.
The study will look at the safety of injecting Cardiac Repair Cells
and their ability to improve heart function.
patients enrolled in the study will have their own marrow stem cells
drawn, and then cultured to increase their number, after 2 weeks
they will be injected directly into the left ventricle of the heart.
trial is the first of its kind in the United States provided to patients
who have limited to no other options with a viable treatment. Dr.
Amit N. Patel, professor of surgery and director of cardiovascular
regenerative medicine at the University of Utah School of Medicine
said that they hope the stem cells will help with new blood vessels
and support the heart muscle to improve the heart’s function.
more about the subject, please visit: www.physorg.com/news146146097.html